Wednesday, March 17, 2010

The Demand & Supply for Money

The Liquidity Preference Function: This shows people's preference to hold money (cash balances) rather than bonds (interest bearing assets)

-People have a choice between holding their wealth in one of two ways: bonds or money
-Money pays no returns, and bonds do pay a return
-The opportunity cost of holding money is the interest rate one earns on a bond
-People only want to hold money when it provides benefits which at least equal the cost of forgoing bond interest


-People hold money so that they can make transactions

-People hold money in case they experience an emergency where money would is required
-There is uncertainty sometimes about the timing of receipts and payments, so it can be strategic to have a buffer of cash savings to "tide yourself over"

-People hold money because they believe it will be more strategic to buy bonds in the near future than in the immediate present (if the interest rate is really low, for interest, waiting for the interest raise to rise before buying bonds will be more financially strategic)

The transaction and precautionary demands for money account for the distance between the money demand curve and the Y-axis. When the demand for money shifts to the left or right, this is usually due to a change in transaction demands (for an example, if GDP increases or prices increase, consumers will have higher transaction demands)

The speculative demand for money explains why the liquidity preference curve is downward sloping: the opportunity cost of holding money increases as interest rates increase, so the higher the interest rates, the lower the demand for money (this is dependent on nominal interest rates, rather than real interest rates, as this is a PSYCHOLOGICAL, rather than an accounting effect)

Income, Prices, and The Nominal Interest Rate Affect Demand for Money!

The higher income is, the more transactions there are within an economy, so the higher demand for money will be
+ Positive Relation

The higher the nominal interest rate, the lower the demand for money will be, for reasons related to opportunity cost
- Negative Relation

The higher the price level is, the higher demand for money will be (this is called inflationary demand for money), because a greater monetary value of transaction will be required to facilitate the same amount of real spending: households need more money to carry out their transactions.
+ Positive Relation

Note* when interest rates are very very very high, the only demand for money is transaction demands (so this is the space between the liquidity preference function's asymptote and the Y axis)


-The money multiplier is relatively constant
-The currency ration and and reserve ratio only change during times of uncertainty (usually, they both increase when the future is murky)
-The money supply is independent from the interest rate (although it affects the interest rate)
-In our model, we say that the money supply is a constant, and that it is perfectly inelastic: it is represented by a straight line on our graph
-The real money supply is M/P: this describes money's purchasing power in terms of goods and services

(This is also called liquidity preference theory of interest, or the portfolio balance theory)
-This is a short run analysis of how interest rates are affected by the money supply- it is very different than the long run analysis we talked about earlier

Okay: So..
-The supply of money is perfectly inelastic (a vertical line)
-The demand for money varies inversely with the interest rate (it is a downward sloping curve)

Equilibrium occurs when demand and supply for money intersect: M = L

Notice that because the demand for money is downward sloping, the money supply affects equilibrium interest rates: a higher money supply renders lower interest rates, while a lower money supply renders higher interest rates

Monetary equilibrium is a stable equilibrium: if there is higher demand for money than money supplied, then a large number of people will begin to sell-off their bonds to generate some extra money. Because of an excess influx of bonds being sold on the market, the price of bonds will fall, while their relative yields will increase. This, in turn, causes the interest rate to rise, and it will rise until the money market is in equilibrium. A similar mechanism returns interest rates to an equilibrium level when there is an excess supply of money.

That's all for now!

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